Lesson 4b

Aram's red hat falls into the waters of the river.  

It is spring. It is green everywhere.

The rooster sings : "Cock-a-doodle-do !" Birds sing merrily. There are geese in the waters of the lake. The geese swim quickly. Aram plays the balloon with the animals. Aram's hat is red and his balloon is yellow.

Aram's red hat falls into the river, into the waters of the river.

— Ani, are we going down-town to buy books ?

— You, go ahead. I shall come later. Now, I cannot.

 

 

 

 

DATIVE  CASE

 

The dative is the case of the complement of indirect object of a verb indicating the action of giving, attributing,  together with their circumstances (location, time).  Its ending is “ի“  in the singular and “ու “ in the plural,  placed before the possible article.

Example :

           

Plural :  Ծառերուն  մօտեցայ :  I came near the trees.

Ծնողներուս  նամակ գրեցի :   I wrote a letter to my parents.

Լուրը ընկերներուդ  տուի:       I gave the news to your friends.

 

 

 

The dative can also play its part of complement of location using the followingpostpositions governing the dative :

 

մէջInside/in

 

 

 

NEGATIVE FORMS OF VARIOUS VERBS.

 

Except for  the three verbs    Եմ, Կամ, Ունիմ ,   that only take the prefix “ չ  “ (չեմ,  ունիմ, չկամ,  all other verbs of the three groups compose the negative form of  indicative by transforming the final “ լ  “ of infinitive into  “ ր  “, (ex. - սիրելսիրեր ) and by placing the conjugation of the auxiliary “ Եմ   “ in the negative form “ չեմ “, before the verb with an alteration of the 3rd person, singular, becoming “ չի  “ or “ չ՛  “ if the verb starts with a vowel.

Ex. –    

Չեմ սիրերչեմ   երգեր                    

 չես   '' չես      ''

չի սիրերչ' երգեր

չենք  սիրերչենք  երգեր

 

չէք         ''    չէք ''               

   չեն ''չեն        ''

 

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