Grammatical Rules

GRAMMATICAL  RULES



PRELIMINARY  REMARKS :

 

In armenian there is no gender, neither masculine nor feminine. Generally in a sentence come first the subject, then the complement and finally the verb. But this is not a compulsory, word order can be modified.



USE OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

 

Two different signs correspond to the definite article : « ն  «  or  «  ը « *. They are attached to the end of the noun :

“ ն “ is used when the noun ends with a vowel :

ԿատուCatկատուն

ԱնիAni(*)Անին.

(*)– Beware :Given names  always take a definite article which is placed at the end of the name.

ը  “ is used when the noun ends with a consonant :

հայրիկPapa հայրիկը

ԱրամAram Արամը

In addition, one must take the following word into account : in order to respect euphony and to avoid a hiatus, when the word that follows begins with a vowel, especially before the verb “to be” in the indicative present tense 3rd person of the singular (“է  “) or by the word “ալ  “, the article     “ ն “ must be used.

Example : հայրիկն   է ,      հայրիկն   ալ                                                                                                   Therefore, generally, one should not hear two vowels following each other :                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Example :      Անիը  ինկաւ  Form correct : Անին ինկաւ:                                                                                                                         

                  Կատուը  այստեղ է          Կատուն  այստեղ է:

 

USE OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

The word  : “մը  “ corresponds to the indefinite article. It is placed after the noun but not attached to it. It is used only in the singular.

Example :  տունhouse

     տուն մըa house

However, before the verb “To be”, Indicative present tense,  3rd person of the singular “ է “ or before the word “ալ  “ (= also),     one must extend the article in order to give a precise meaning.

Example :   Սիրուն տուն  մըն է :This is a nice house.

       Ծառ մըն ալ  կայ :There is also a tree



SINGULAR POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE ARTICLES  

 

1st personիմMy

2nd personքուYour

3rd person (*)իր, անորHis or Her

(*) The 3rd person can be found in two different signs : (իր, անոր ). Either one can be used.ARTICLES

 

1st person          ս

2nd     “          դ

3rd     “     (*) ն    or ըaccording to euphony.

 

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND CORRESPONDING SUFFIXES

Example :

1st person    (*) իմ    մատիտս           My pencil

2nd    “    (*) քու   մատիտդ           Your pencil

3rd    “         իր, անոր  մատիտը           His or Her pencil

        իր, անոր   մատիտն  էThis is his or her pencil.

(*) One can avoid using the possessive adjective (իմ, քու ) with the singular 1st and 2nd person as the possessive article can be sufficient.

Example :Ահա տունսThis is my house.

Ահա տունդThis is your house.

However, for the singular 3rd person, one must use “իր  “, in order to give a precise meaning, as “ն  or  “ը (according to euphony) can be used either way : definite article or possessive article.Example :Ահա տունը       This is the house = “ ը “ definite article.

      Ահա իր տունը:        This is his house = “ ը “ possessive article.

 

 DEMONSTRATIV ADJECTIVS

Աս  (familier) = This  // Այս, այդ ,այն   =this, that, these

 

INTERROGATIVE  WORDS( Adjectivs,Pronouns,Adverbs)

 

Ո՞վ  : Who ?   Ex :Ո՞վ  է : Who is it ? Interrogativ pronoun

Ի՞նչ :  What ? Ի՜նչ = exclamativ

Ինչո՞ւ :  Why ? (Adverb of maner)

Ինչպէ՞ս :  How ?/   Թերեւս =  Perhaps (Adverb of manners)

Ո՞ր :   Which ?  Ex. :  Ո՞ր շունը = Which dog ?

Որո՞ւն :  whom ? Որո՞ւն շունը  =Whose  dog is this?

Ո՞ւր :  Where      / Ուրկէ՞ :  from where ? (Adverb of place)                                                                              Ե՞րբ :  when ? (Temporal Adverb).

CONJONCTIONS

Ալ,  որովհետեւ (because),   ու = եւ (and),  բայց (but), իսկ (while).

 

ADVERBS (of temps, of place, of quantity)

Ուշ (tard), հիմա(maintenant), վաղը(demain), յետոյ(après),  երբ(quand), երէկ(hier).

Հոս – հոն (ici – là-bas).  

քիչ մը – շատ (un peu –beaucoup.

SINGULAR PERSONAL PRONOUN

 

1st person     ես  I, myself

2nd    “         դուն  you, yourself

3rd    “(*1)   ան / ինք  he, she, it, himself, herself, itself

(*1) – The 3rd person can be found under two signs :  ան / ինք .  Either one can be used.



THE VERB TO BE   “ԵՄ“

 

INDICATIVE SINGULAR AFFIRMATIVE PRESENT TENSE

 

եմI am

եսYou are

էHe (she) is

 

Example :

(*2)ԵսԱնինեմI am Ani

ԴունԱնինեսYou are Ani

անԱնինէHe (she) is Ani

(*2) One can avoid using the personal pronoun every time the verb is sufficient.

Example :Անին  եմ,    Անին  ես,     Անին  է.  

 

THE VERB TO BE  “ԵՄ “ INDICATIVE SINGULAR NEGATIVE PRESENT TENSE

 

The negative form of the Indicative Present tense is written by setting the letter “չ “ before  and attached to the verb.

Example :

չեմ        I am not

չես        You are not

չէ        He (she) is not

       Example :       ԱնինչեմI am not Ani

       ԱնինչեսYou are not Ani

       ԱնինչէHe (she) is not Ani

 

SPECIFICITIES :

 

The verb Եմ   is the only auxiliary verb in the Armenian language with only two tenses :Indicative present and imperfect. For the other tenses, the verb used is  Ըլլալ  = to become, which is a full verb, the indicative present of which is Կ՛ըլլամ   I become (I am in the process of getting a cold).

Exemple :     Կ՛ըլլամ, կ՛ըլլաս,  կ՛ըլլայ, կ՛ըլլանք, կ՛ըլլաք,  կ՛ըլլան:

 

PERSONAL PRONOUN PLURAL FORM

 

1st personՄենքwe

2nd      “դուքyou

3rd      “(*) անոնք / իրենքthey

 

(*) The 3rd person has two forms  : անոնք  / իրենք.  Either one can be used.




THE VERB “TO BE”, INDICATIVE PLURAL PRESENT TENSE

AND THE PLURAL PERSONAL PRONOUN

 

ԵնքWe are

էք (beware !  է,  not ե  )You are

ենThey are

 

Example :  Մենք    Հայ  ենքWe are Armenian

    Դուք     Հայ էք (attention ! է,  not ե )You are Armenian

    անոնք, իրենք   Հայ  ենThey are Armenian

 

Reminder :  One can avoid the personal pronoun every time the verb can be sufficient.

Example :    Հայ ենք,  Հայ  էք,  Հայ  են:

 

 

PLURAL PERSONAL PRONOUN AND THE VERB “TO BE” INDICATIVE PLURAL  

PRESENT TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM.



The negative form of the Indicative Present tense is written by attaching  “չ “ to and before the conjugation.

 

չենքWe are not

չէք (beware ! է , not ե )You are not

չենThey are not

 

Example : (*)   ՄենքհոսչենքWe are not here

ԴուքհոսչէքYou are not here (beware ! է , not ե  )

       Անոնք / իրենք  հոսչենThey are not here

(*) .- One can avoid the personal pronoun every time the verb can be sufficient.

Example : Հոս   չենք,   հոս  չէք,  հոս  չեն:

USE OF THE VERB “TO HAVE” ՈՒՆԻՄ “, INDICATIVE, PRESENT TENSE,  

AFFIRMATIVE FORM, SINGULAR AND PLURAL.

 

ՈւնիմI have

ունիսYou have

ունիHe (she) has

ունինքWe have

ունիքYou have

ունինThey have

Example :

տունմըունիմI have a house

ՏունմըունիսYou have a house

ՏունմըունիHe (she) has a house

ՏունմըունինքWe have a house

ՏունմըունիքYou have a house

ՏունմըունինThey have a house

                                                                                                                                                                    The verb “ՈՒՆԻՄ is not a full verb. It is only conjugated in the indicative present and imperfect.  For the other tenses, one uses the verb “ՈՒՆԵՆԱԼ  “. It is a full verb. Its indicative present  is : Կ՛ունենամ, կ՛ունենաս, կ՛ունենայ, կ՛ունենանք, կ՛ունենաք, կ՛ունենան :

 

USE OF THE VERB “TO HAVE” “ՈՒՆԻՄ “, INDICATIVE PRESENT,

NEGATIVE FORM, SINGULAR AND PLURAL.

 

The negative form of the indicative present tense is written setting before and attaching a “չ  “ to the conjugation (չունիմ ).

չունիմI have not

չունիսYou have not

չունի            He (she) has not

չունինքWe have not

չունիքYou have not

չունինThey have not

 

FORMATION  OF THE PLURAL OF THE WORDS

 

The plural is generally formed by adding “եր   “ if the word is monosyllabic and “ներ   “ if the word is polysyllabic.

   Monosyllabic words         Polysyllabic  words

   SingularPlural       Singular           Plural

   տուն տուներ                      պա-տու- հան       պատուհաններ

   գիրքգիրքեր                        ան-տառ                անտառներ

   նաւնաւեր                                   կա-տու            կատուներ

Example :  շուներ  ունիմ     I have dogs.         կեն-դա-նի-ներ  ունիմ   I have animals.

 

However, there are exceptions :

First, some monosyllabic nouns, that, in the classical language, used to end by a  “ն  “, have lost this final “ն  “ in the singular but this “ն “ appears before the vowel of the monosyllabic suffix in the plural.

Example : SingularPlural

     դուռ(ն)դռներ

     լեռ(ն)լեռներ

Second, the word “մարդ “ (man, human being) becomes “մարդիկ “ in the plural (men) and the word “տղայ “ (child) becomes “տղաք “  (children).



PLURAL POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

 

The possessive adjectives  are the following :

 

    ՄերOur

     ձերYour

(*) իրենց / անոնցTheir

 

PLURAL POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND THE CORRESPONDING SUFFIXES

 

The substantive  determined by a possessive adjective must take an article. This article is    ” ն “ or “ը“ for one of the persons in the plural. The article is placed after the ending of the plural.

The number of the possessed has no influence on the choice of the article.

Example :

Մերընկերը  հոս է    Our friend is here.

ձերընկերը  հոս էYour     “ “   “

իրենց / անոնց  ընկերը   հոս էTheir    “ “   “

Մերընկերները հոս ենOur friends are here

ձերընկերները հոս ենYour     “ “      “

իրենց / անոնց  ընկերները  հոս ենTheir“       “ “

 

 

DECLENSIONS

 

Armenian is a language with declensions : the noun takes  different forms according to its function in the sentence. These forms are called “cases”. In a similar way,  as the various forms of a verb are called “conjugation”, the various forms of a noun arecalled“declension”.

 

There are 6 cases in Armenian : Nominative,  Accusative, Genitive,  Dative, Ablative  and Instrumental. In principle, each case has its own particular ending.

Regarding the declension of the substantive, the nominative (subject, natural state of the noun) and the accusative (direct object) have the same form in the singular and in the plural and can take the definite article if the meaning is defined.

However, they have a different function in the sentence : the Nominative is the subject whereas the Accusative is the direct object.

Example : Շունը խեղդեց գայլը :         : The dog strangled the wolf.

        (The wolf = Accusative, direct object of the verb : to strangle).

 

CASE OF THE GENITIVE  IN “ի “, FIRST REGULAR DECLENSION

 

The genitive is the case of the complement of noun : it indicates a relation of “owning” or belonging. Most of the time, its ending  is “ի “  in the singular and “ու “ in the plural. It is the first regular declension  and the most widely used.

The name of the owner is always placed before the owned object that takes an article.

Example :Սեղանին   ոտքըThe leg of the table

Սեղաններուն   ոտքըThe legs of the tables

 

If the owner is used with a possessive adjective (իմ, քու, իր ), the ending of the singular “ի''  is completed by the use of the possessive article (ս, դ, ն ) and the owned object  takes the definite article ''ը''.

Example :

 

(իմ)  Շապիկիս  թեւըThe sleeve of my shirt

(քու) շապիկիդ  թեւըThe sleeve of your shirt

(իր)  շապիկին  թեւըThe sleeve of his shirt



DATIVE  CASE

 

The dative is the case of the complement of indirect object of a verb indicating the action of giving, attributing,  together with their circumstances (location, time).  Its ending is “ի“  in the singular and “ու “ in the plural,  placed before the possible article.

Example :

           Singular :

Գիրքը Արամին  տուի:I gave Aram the book.

Արամին սպասեցի:                 I waited for Aram (in Armenian, this verb is intransitive).

Հայկին հանդիպեցայ: I met Hayg (intransitive verb in Armenian).

Պատուհանիս  նայեցաւ : He looked at my window (intransitive verb in Armenian).

Plural :  Ծառերուն  մօտեցայ :  I came near the trees.

Ծնողներուս  նամակ գրեցի :   I wrote a letter to my parents.

Լուրը ընկերներուդ  տուի:       I gave the news to your friends.

 

The main verbs requiring the dative case are the following (all intransitive verbs) :

ՀանդիպիլTo meet

ՆայիլTo look (at)/To watch

յաղթելTo win

օգնելTo help

տալTo give

 

The dative can also play its part of complement of location using the followingpostpositions governing the dative :

քովBeside/next to

մէջInside/in

առջեւ            Before/in front of

ետեւBehind

տակUnder/below

վրայOn/Over/Above

 

Example : Դասարանին քով պարտէզ մը կայ:  There is a garden next to the classroom.

    Սօնային  ետեւը  Հայկը կը նստի:   Hayg is sitting behind Sona.

 

Thus, genitive and dative have the same endings :ի “ in the singular and “ու “ in the plural. However, their functions remain different. Genitive is the complement of the noun whereas dative is the complement of indirect object of the verb.



SINGULAR GENITIVE INՈՒ

 

The ending of the singular genitive of a few monosyllabic words is : “ու “ set before the possible article if the meaning of the sentence requires it. They are the following :

 

Singular Genitive – DativeGenitive – Dative

 

Հով     Wind հովուՀայ          Armenian Հայու

կովCow կովուՄարդManմարդու

ծովSeaծովուԴարCenturyդարու

հաւHenհաւուԱրջBearարջու

ՆաւBoat     նաւուէշ          Donkey     էշու/ իշու

ձի      Hors  ձիու

Examples :   Ծովուն   գոյնը կապոյտ է:                                                                                      Նաւուն  պատուհանները  բաց են                                                  

Other words, although polysyllabic, also follow this declension changing their final “այ “ in “ու'' before the possible article.

Singular Genitive – Dative

տղայ               Child/son տղու

ճամբայ    Wayճամբու




Examples with genitive :Տղուն  ականջները մեծ են:

   With dative   :կառքսճամբուն  վրայ մնաց:

When genitive or dative are used with a possessive article, the final article “ն “ is replaced by the possessive suffix.

Ex -(իմ)տղուս  ականջները  պզտիկ են:

(քու)նաւուդ  պատուհանները մեծ  են:

SINGULAR GENITIVE – DATIVE OF WORDS ENDING IN  ութիւն  “

 

Words ending in “ութիւն “ (գիտութիւն  = science or knowledge) or in “իւն “( արիւն= blood) in genitive – dative become “ութեան “ or ''եան''.

Ex : Գծագրութեան դասը շատ կը սիրեմ I like the drawing lesson very much.

      Արեան գոյնը կարմիր է:The colour of blood is red.



ABLATIVE, SINGULAR AND PLURAL



The ablative is the case indicating the origin, the starting point, the location or the object from which one gets away (IOC or complement of location).  It also indicates the purpose representing the origin of the action or of the status. Ablative has the ending “ “ both in the singular and in the plural.

 

Ex :

ablative  singular  :

Անտառէն  կու գամI come from the forest.

տոլմայէն   ա՛ռ քիչ մըTake a little bit of dolma.

վախէն  վեր ցատկեցHe jumped with fright

 

Ablative plural :

Ծառերէն ճիւղ մը բերաւ                                        He brought a bough taken from the trees.



SINGULAR AND PLURAL INSTRUMENTAL



The Instrumental is the case of the circumstantial complement of way or accompaniment in order to achieve an action. One must add “ով “ to the singular and plural nominative in order to obtain the correct form of instrumental. The definite article is never used with the instrumental case.

 

Ex.

Նամակը օդանաւով ուղարկեցի    Circumstancial phrase  (means) I sent the letter by airmail.

Սիրելով  կ՛երթայ դպրոց              ‘'        (manner) He enjoys going to school.

Բարեկամներով պիտի երթամ ''  (accompaniement) I shall go with friends.



GENERAL CHART OF DECLENSIONS, GENITIVE INի

 

Nom. Acc. :սեղան

Gen. Dat.  :սեղանի(ն)

Abl. :սեղանէ(ն)

Inst.:սեղանով                                                                                                                                  



GENERAL CHART OF DECLENSIONS, SINGULAR GENITIVE INու

 

Nom. Acc. :ծով

Gen. Dat.  :ծովու(ն)

Abl. :ծովէ(ն)

Inst. :ծով(ով)

 

GENERAL CHART OF PLURAL GENITIVE INու                                                                                                                                                         

Nom. Acc. :սեղաններ                                                                                                                  Gen. Dat.  :սեղաններ ու(ն)                                                                                                                                          Abl. :սեղաններէ (ն)                                                                                                            Inst. :սեղաններ ով

 

THE NEGATIVE FORMS OF THE VERBS  “ԵՄ“, “ ԿԱՄ“, “ՈՒՆԻՄ

 

For  these three verbs “ԵՄ“, “ ԿԱՄ“, “ՈՒՆԻՄ“ which are incomplete verbs without infinitive, the negative form is obtained by placing “ չ“ before the verb, as we showed it in pages  3 (for “ԵՄ“) and 5 (for“Ունիմ“).

 

The verb “Կամ“   which means to exist, to be present, is completed by the verb “ Ըլլալ  “. Most of the time, third persons “ կայ  “ and “ կան “ (there is/there are) are used.

 

Verb   Եմ                         Verb Ունիմ                                Verb Կամ

 

affirmative    negative affirmative     negative      affirmative    negative

Եմ              չեմ                   ունիմ չունիմ                       կամ         չկամ

Ես               չես                   ունիս        չունիս                       կաս         չկաս

Է                  չէ                     ունի        չունի                (*1)  կայ         չկայ

Ենք             չենք                 ունինք չունինք                        կանք չկանք

Էք                չէք                   ունիք         չունիք                         կաք չկաք

Են               չեն                   ունին          չունին                  (*2) կան          չկան                                  

Examples :                                                                                                                                                   Ես Անին չեմ             I am not Ani               Ես գիրք չունիմ                  I have no books.                 Դուն Արամը չես     You are not Aram.       Դուն թռչուն մը չունիս You have no bird.          Ան Վաչէն չէ           He is not Vatché.         Ան նաւ չունի           He has noboats. Մենք ուժով չեն      We are not strong         Մենք շուն չունինք We have no dog.                                                                                     Դուք հայ չէք          You are not Armenian.  Դուք տուն չունիք           You have no house.                                                                          Անոնք հոն չեն     They are not over there.  Անոնք սենեակ չունին    They have no room.

(*1)   Հոս մատիտ մը կայ:There is a pencil here.

(*2)  hոն մատիտներ  կան:There are pencils over there.

              hոս մուկեր չկան:             There are no mice here.

 

(*1).- The “ յ “ of the 3rd person, singular, is not pronounced.

(*2).- Armenian distinguishes the 3rd  person, singular and plural, of this verb.

կայ “ designates a single object whereas “ կան “ designates several objects, like English that uses “there is” and “there are”.



CONJUGATION OF VARIOUS VERBS IN THE INDICATIVE, PRESENT TENSE.

 

There are three groups of verbs distinguished by the ending of the infinitive :

 

The first group has the infinitive in “ ել   “.   Ex : բերել      (characteristic vowel : “ ե “).

The second group has the infinitive in “ իլ “.  Ex : խօսիլ     (characteristic vowel : “ ի  “).

The third group has the infinitive in “ ալ “.     Ex : խաղալ  (characteristic vowel : “ ա  “).

 

In the three groups, you must place : “ կը“ before the verb if the verb starts with a consonant,or “ կ՛(''կ   apostrophe”)  if the verb starts with a vowel.

 

VERBS IN “ Ել

 

The endings have the same form as the verb “ Եմ   “ in the indicative, present tense (եմ,  ես, է,  ենք, էք, են).                                                                                                                                         Examples :                                   Տեսնել       To  see :

Կը տեսնեմ        I see

Կը  տեսնես        You see

Կը տեսնէ             He sees

Կը տեսնենք        We see

Կը տեսնէք        You see

Կը տեսնեն       They see

 

Ուտել            To eat             ՈւզելTo want

Կ՛ուտեմ             I eatկ՛  ուզեմI want

Կ՛ուտեսYou eatկ՛  ուզեսYou want

Կ՛ուտէHe eatsկ՛  ուզէHe wants

Կ՛ուտենքWe eatկ՛  ուզենքWe want

Կ՛ուտէքYou eatկ՛  ուզէքYou want

Կ՛ուտենThey eatկ՛  ուզենThey want

 

VERBS IN Իլ   “

 

The endings have the form    իմ, իս, ի, ինք, իք, ին.

Ex.Խօսիլ           To speak

 

Կը խօսիմ  I speak

Կը խօսիսYou speak

Կը խօսիHe speaks

Կը խօսինքWe speak

Կը խօսիքYou speak

Կը խօսինThey speak

 

VERBS IN Ալ

 

The endings have the form  ամ, աս, այ, անք, աք, ան.

N.B : For the three monosyllabic verbs “լալ“, “գալ“, “տալ“, “կը“  is replaced by “ կու “.

Ex. –Բանալ         To open                 Գալ            To come

      Կը բանամ                     I open               կու   գամ             I come

      կը բանաս           You open    կու  գաս You come

      կը բանայ           He opens                      կու  գայHe comes

      կը   բանանք           We open    կու  գանքWe come

      կը   բանաք           You open     կու  գաքYou come

      կը բանան           They open     կու  գանThey come

 

NEGATIVE FORMS OF VARIOUS VERBS.

 

Except for  the three verbs    Եմ, Կամ, Ունիմ ,   that only take the prefix “ չ  “ (չեմ,  ունիմ, չկամ,  all other verbs of the three groups compose the negative form of  indicative by transforming the final “ լ  “ of infinitive into  “ ր  “, (ex. - սիրելսիրեր ) and by placing the conjugation of the auxiliary “ Եմ   “ in the negative form “ չեմ “, before the verb with an alteration of the 3rd person, singular, becoming “ չի  “ or “ չ՛  “ if the verb starts with a vowel.

Ex. –    Չեմ սիրերչեմ   երգեր                                                                                       չես   ''չես      ''

չի սիրերչ' երգեր

չենք  սիրերչենք  երգեր

չէք         ''                                 չէք ''                                                    չեն ''չեն        ''

 

Examples :     

                                                                                                                                                        Սիրել                 Անին չեմ սիրերI do not like Ani.                                                                  Խօսիլ Դուն հայերէն չես խօսիրYou do not speak Armenian.                           Երթալ Ան դուրս չ՛երթարHe does not go outside.                         Բանալ Ան դոուռը չի բանարHe does not open the door.                      Գալ Մենք հոս չենք գարWe do not come here.                                              Լողալ Դուք չէք լողարYou do not swim.                                    Ուտել Անոնք տոլմա չեն ուտերThey do not eat dolmas.                    Քնանալ Ան չի քնանարHe does not sleep.                                    Ելլել Անին սանդուխներէն վեր չ՛ելլեր    Ani does not go upstairs.                        Ուզել Ան չ՛ուզեր  մեր  տունը  գալ He does not want to come to our house.    Ընել Մայրիկին խօսքը մտիկ  չ՛ըներ       He does not listen to his mother.            Գրել Ինծի նամակ չի գրեր                         He does not write to me.

 

CONJUGATION OF VERBS, INDICATIVE, PAST TENSE.

 

The indicative, past tense, is found under the following forms :

 

1 – either : root + ending a or b

  1. Root + ի,  իր, աւ,  ինք, իք, ին.    

(ex :     = բերել =  բերի, բերիր, բերաւ, բերինք, բերիք, բերին.   

       տանիլ = տարի,տարիր, տարաւ, տարինք, տարիք, տարին)    

  1. Root +  այ, ար, աւ, անք, աք, ան.

(ex.:    իջնել = իջայ, իջար, իջաւ, իջանք, իջաք, իջան.

նստիլ = նստայ, նստար, նստաւ, etc...)                                                                                                                ուտել  =  կերայ,  կերար, կերաւ.   

                                                                                               

2 – or the infix “ ց  “, characteristic of the past, is placed between root and ending a or b,

together with the vowel  ե or ա , thus taking the form  “ եց “ or “ աց “.

a) Root+եց +ի  (ex : երգ + եց + ի  = երգեցի,  երգեցիր,  երգեց, երգեցինք, etc...                                                                                                                                        Root+աց+ի (ex : խաղ + աց  ի = խաղացի, խաղացիր, խաղաց,խաղացինք,etc...)

b)Root+եց +այ (ex : մօտ+ եց+ այ = մօտեցայ, մօտեցար, մօտեցաւ,մօտեցանք,etc...)        Root+աց + այ  (ex : քն + աց+ այ  = քնացայ, քնացար, քնացաւ, քնացանք, etc...)

 

Some verbs, instead of infixes "ց", ''եց'', ''աց'', insert,  between their root and their ending in the infinitive ել,իլ,ալ), an infix “ ն  “, or “ չ  “, or “ են “  or “ ան  “ as   իջ+ն+ել,  գի+ն+ալ, փախ+չ+իլ,  or մօտ+են+ալ , քն+ան+ալ:

These  infixes generally disappear in the past form.                                                                    Ex.- Իջնել=իջայ,  գտնել =գտայ,  մօտենալ=մօտեցայ,  հարցնել= հարցուցի:                                                                                 

 

These verbs with inserted infixes are called “inceptive verbs”.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                   

NEGATIVE FORM OF VERBS IN THE PAST.

 

The negative form of the past is obtained by placing the prefix “ չ “ before the affirmative form of the verb.

 

Exemple :

Past tense       NEGATIVE FORM

(Գտնել)  To find  գտ+այ  (Form 1/b)  մատիտս   չգտայ             I did not find my pencil.

(Ուտել)   To eat   կեր+այ +(form 1/b)    պանիրը  չկերայYou did not eat the cheese.

(Կարդալ) To reed կարդ+ացի(form 2/a) այս գիրքը չկարդացի    I did not read this book.

(Խօսիլ) To speek խօս+եցանք (form 2/b) )այս մասին չխօսեցանք  We did not talk of this         subject.

 

THE FUTUR

 

The future has the same form as the indicative, present tense, with the only difference that the  “ կը “ of the indicative is replaced by the constant “ պիտի  “ which is placed before the verb at all persons.

 

Exemple:

 

Ես վաղը Հայաստան պիտի երթամ :Tomorrow, I shall go to Armenia.

Մայրիկիս հետ հայերէն պիտի խօսիս:You will speak Armenian to my mother.

Անին գիրքը  դպրոց պիտի բերէ:Ani will bring the book to school.

Մենք գիւղ պիտի երթանք:We shall go to the countryside.

Այսօր կանուխ պիտի ճաշէք:Today, you will have lunch early.

Հայկը եւ Անին մեր տունը  պիտի գան:Hayg and Ani will come to our house.



FUTURE, NEGATIVE FORM

 

The “ պիտի  “,  sign of the future, precedes the verb conjugated in the negative form  with ''չ'':

Ex :  

 

պիտի չբերեմպիտի չխօսիմպիտի չերթամ

պիտի չբերեսպիտի չխօսիսպիտի չերթաս

պիտի չբերէպիտի չխօսիպիտի չերթայ

պիտի չբերենքպիտի չխօսինքպիտի չերթանք

պիտի չբերէքպիտի չխօսիքպիտի չերթաք

պիտի չբերենպիտի չխօսինպիտի չերթան

 

IMPERATIVE



Imperative is only used in the second person, singular and plural.

  1. For the regular verbs of the 1st and 2nd groups (ել, իլ ), the imperative singular is formed  by : Root + է'   . Ex. - խօսէ',  գրէ՛, պատմէ՛, քալէ՛.

Exceptions :  the imperative singular of the verb Բերել (To bring) is Բե՛ր  / առնել  (To take) is  ա՛ռ :

  b) But, for the regular verbs of the 3rd group (ալ ), the imperative singular is formed

by : Root + ա՛    (accentuated and without final ''յ'') : Ex. -  Կարդա՛, խաղա՛ :

  c) For For defective verbs : Ex. :   Գալ =  եկո՛ւր  (come here) /  Երթալ = գնա՛ (go)



IMPERATIVE PLURAL (PROHIBITIVE)

  1. For all verbs, the imperative plural is formed by:  root + է՛ք   (accentuated).

Ex : Բերէ՛ք,  նստէ՛ք,  առէ՛ք:      

  1. For  verbs with infixes :  "ց'', ''եց'',  ''աց'', the imperative plural is formed by :

Past tense +է՛ք    (accentuated). Ex. -Խօսեցէ՛ք,  քալեցէ՛ք, գրեցէ՛ք,  կարդացէ՛ք :

      c) For defective verbs :Ex. :   Գալ =  եկէ՛ք   (come)  / Երթալ = գացէ՛ք (go).

 

PROHIBITIVE (NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE)

 

The prohibitive singular is formed by the particle մի՛   , accentuated, followed by the infinitive of the verb, the final “ լ  “ of which, is transformed into “ ր   “.

Ex.մի՛  գրեր, մի՛ քալեր, մի՛  խօսիր, մի՛ խաղար:

 

The second person of the plural of the prohibitive is also formed by the particle մի՛    , accentuated, followed by : root + էք (իք,  աք).       

Ex. - մի՛  գր+էք,  մի՛   խօսիք,  մի՛  խաղաք :

SUBJUNCTIVE

 

The present  tenses of the subjunctive is conjugated like the present tenses of the indicative except for the absence of the particle “ կը   “ preceding the verb.

 

Ex.Subjunctive, present tenseSubjunctive imperfect

գրեմգրէի

գրեսգրէիր

գրէգրէր

գրենքգրէինք

գրէքգրէիք

գրենգրէին

The subjunctive is sometimes preceded by “ որ “ (Let me write) or “ թո՛ղ    “ (Let him write).Ex.- Ինծի ըսաւ որ  իրեն սպասեմ  hոս:He told me to wait for him here.

                  Գիրքը թո՛ղ քեզի տայ:  Let him give you the book.

 

PUNCTUATION

 

( , )  The coma (Ստորակէտ)  corresponds to the French coma.

( . )  The fullstop (in American : the period)  (կէտ) corresponds to the French semi-colon or colon in Armenian. It is also used to indicate an abbreviation :

Exemple.=Պր. (Baron = Sir/Mr. ), Տիկ. (Diguine = Mrs./Madame).

( : ) The final fullstop/period (վերջակէտ) is represented by a colon or two points on either side of a horizontal line. Example :  Արմէնը հոս է:

( ՝)  The pouth (Բութ ) is used to separate an elliptic proposition from the principal proposition. The verb is then omitted , the pouth separating the subject from the attribute or from the complement.

Example :Արամին գնդակը կարմիր է,իսկ գլխարկը՝  դեղին:

Raising the voice on the word crowned with a pouth shows the presence of the pouth followed by lowering the voice on the following word.

( ՛ ) The chechd (Շեշտ) = accent = is used to stress a word strongly. It is set on the last vowel :

Ex.- :Ո՛չ: Չե՛մ  ուզեր հոն երթալ:: No, I don’t want go.

( ՜ ) The yergar (Երկար) corresponds to the interjection : it marks emotional feelings : affection, love, commiseration, regret. It is set on the last vowel.

Ex.- :  Ա՜խ,  աս ի՜նչ գեղեցիկ տեսարան է :    Oh ! What a beautiful landscape.

( ՞ ) The barouyg (Պարոյկ) is the question mark. It is set on the vowel of the last syllable of the interrogative word. Thus, according to the space where the barouyg is set  (always on the vowel of the last syllable) one can tell the difference between a common interrogation and a a more specific interrogation stating a more special meaning :

Ex.- :  Հայկը   քու   հայրի՞կդ է:         - Is Hayg your father (or your uncle) ?

                    Հայկը  քո՞ւ   հայրիկդ  է:                - Is Hayg your father (or Paul’s father) ?

 

Parenthesis, inverted comas, dash, suspension points are  used in the same way as in French.  The use of capital letters  is the same as in French.



THE SENTENCE

 

The order of the words in Armenian is generally : subject – direct object – verb.

 

However, the Armenian sentence is really not rigid and the order of the words can be changed in certain cases, for example : putting the direct object at the beginning of the sentence.

 

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